Tax System, Rules And Rates In Albania 2012

Taxes in Albania are grouped into three main categories: indirect taxes (VAT, excise, gambling and other indirect taxes), direct taxes (income tax, personal income taxes, taxes on capital); local taxes, and social and health security contributions. These three categories are under authority like below:

National Taxes, administered by the Central Tax Administration and Customs Administration include:

Indirect taxes include: Value added tax; Excise; Taxes on gambling, casinos and hippodromes;

Direct taxes include: Income tax; National taxes; Other taxes, which are defined as such by special law, and Customs taxes.

Social and health security contributions, as defined in the social insurances law

Local taxes and tariffs administered by Local Tax Administration include: Local tax on small business; Tax on immovable property, which includes tax on buildings and agricultural land; Tax on hotel accommodation; Tax on impact of new constructions upon infrastructure; Tax on transfer of ownership right on real estate; Annual tax for vehicle registration; Tax for occupation of public space; Board tax; Temporary taxes; Registration tariff for various activities; Cleaning and waste disposal tariff; Vehicle parking tariff; Tariff for services.

How is going on the Taxation of commercial companies?
Each individual, who is a partner in a commercial company, is responsible for the company tax liabilities to the tax administration, according to provisions in the company charter. According to commercial registry, over 95 percent of companies are limited liability companies. The remainder is joint stock companies, partnerships and less than 0.5 percent is limited partnerships. At the moment a company is created and starts its economic activity, it is responsible for:

– Calculation of VAT and timely declaration and payment;
– Payment of advance tax installments for profit tax to pay every month;
– Calculation, timely declaration and payment of tax on incomes from employment for employers and employees;
– Calculation, timely declaration and payment of social and health insurances contributions;
– Monthly payment of advance income tax installments in time;
– Withholding and payment of withheld tax, under obligation from the Law On Income tax;
– Calculation, timely declaration and payment of taxes according to specific activity for gambling, casinos and hippodromes;
– Calculation, timely declaration and payment of excise under specific law;
– Calculation, timely declaration and payment of national taxes and local taxes.

In order to calculate taxes, taxpayers who are subject to VAT or profit tax keep registers, accounting records, books and financial information and issue tax receipt or tax coupon, in accordance with relevant laws and regulations pursuant to them. Taxpayers keep their accounts in accordance with provisions of the law "On accounting and financial statements" and act pursuant to that law in accordance with IFRS principles. In order to register economic transactions related to taxes, taxpayers can also use books, records or documents specified in specific tax laws and respective regulations. Taxpayers are required to use basic documentation, including tax invoice, in accordance with tax legislation and relevant legal provisions.

What Tax exemption are applied?
Albania's tax regime is considered by far one of the most important incentives for foreign investment as it is the lowest in Europe; However, the tax system as such does not discriminate against or in favor of foreign investors.

Likewise, legislation relating to the public procurement process makes little distinction between foreign and domestic companies, as many activities in Albania require licensing within the territory. The procedures for obtaining a license are, however, the same for national and foreign companies. The government to date has not screened foreign investments and provided little in the way of tax, financial or other special incentives.

The Value Added Tax
The majority of goods and services are subject to VAT at a standard rate of 20 per cent, although certain exemptions apply (such as for financial services, postal services, non-profit organization supplies, packaging and materials used in drug production, supplies of electronic and written media for advertising, supplies of services at casinos and hippodromes (race tracks), sales of newspapers, magazines and advertisement services in them, as well as certain hydrocarbon operations).

According to the instruction of the Minister of Finance (No. 17, 2008), the most significant incentives for investors in Albania are as follows:

– VAT credit at the rate of 100 per cent for importers of machinery and equipment which will serve entirely their taxable economic activity;
– exemption of VAT for export of international services;

The tax export regime can be considered a kind of investment incentive for both foreign and national entrepreneurs, and is applicable to all Albanian products destined for export outside the Albanian customs territory. The export VAT rate it is 0 per cent. Exporters can benefit from a VAT credit for purchases made on behalf of their exports.

Overall, if the tax credit for a taxation period is higher than the VAT applicable in that period, taxpayers have the right to use the credit surplus for the following taxable period. Taxable persons have the right to request a reimbursement of the credit surplus when they have a taxable credit amount over three months that is above 400,000 Albanian Leks. As stated above, and since they are essentially exporters, investors are entitled to VAT reimbursement on the purchase of domestic goods or raw materials when it is for production purposes.

The Corporate taxation
Definition of Residence
A company is considered resident in Albania if it has its legal seat or place of effective management in Albania. Further, partnerships and legal entities with a permanent establishment in Albania would be considered resident taxpayers. Residents must register with the National Registration Center (NRC).

Taxable Basis
Residents are taxed on their worldwide income; non residents are taxed only on their Albanian-source income.

Taxable income
Taxable income of residents includes business profits, as well as dividends, interest, and realized capital gains. Taxable profit is the difference between gross profit and related expenses. The determination of the taxable profit is generally based on the profits shown on the financial statements.

Tax income Rate
The rate of income tax is a flat tax of 10% as of January 1st, 2008.

Taxation of dividends received by residents
Dividend income is generally considered taxable income, unless the participation exemption or a double tax treaty relief is applicable.

Participation exemption: Resident companies – Dividends and distribution of earnings are excluded from a resident's taxable profit when dividends and earnings are distributed from resident companies or partnerships which:

– are subject to corporate income tax; and
– the beneficiary resident's shareholding comprises at least 25%, in value or number, of stock capital or voting rights, while for partnerships at least 25% of the initial capital.

However, if the recipient shareholder has ownership of less than 25% of the distributing company, the dividends are included in the taxable income of the recipient shareholder.

Participation exemption: nonresident companies – No participation exemption is in place for holding of foreign companies. Consequently, dividends received from foreign companies would be included in taxable income. Taxation of dividends paid to nonresidents – Dividend income distribution to a nonresident is subject to a withholding tax of 10%, unless a double tax treaty provides for a lower rate.

Capital gains
Realized capital gains are considered as taxable income and are taxed together with other income, at 10% on a net basis.

Losses can be carried forward for three consecutive years, unless there is a change of ownership of 25% of the company shares. Carry-back of losses is not permitted.

There's no Surtax in Albania.

Alternative minimum tax

Reign tax credit
Double taxation is avoided through tax treaties. Albania currently has 25 treaties in effect with other countries.

Tax Treaties with Albania:
Poland (1995), Romania (1995), Malaysia (1995), Hungary (1996), Turkey (1997), Czech Republic (1997), Russian Federation (1998), Macedonia (FYROM) (1999), Croatia (1999), Italy (2000), Bulgaria (2000), Sweden (2000), Norway (2000), Greece (2001), Malta (2001), Switzerland (2001), Moldova (2004), Belgium (2005), China (2006), France (2006), Netherlands (2006), Egypt (2006), Serbia and Montenegro (2006), Korea (2008), Austria (2009), and Latvia (2009).

Holding company regime
Tax Incentives
Occasional tax relief from Corporate Income
Tax is granted for selected projects on a case-by-case basis. These projects may include investments channeled to public services, infrastructure projects, as well as tourism and oil industries.

Withholding tax
Withholding tax is applicable to dividend, interest, and royalty payments, as well as certain other types of Albanian-source income earned by nonresidents.
Dividends are subject to a 10% withholding tax rate, unless the rate is reduced under an applicable tax treaty.

Interest is taxed at a 10% withholding tax rate, unless the rate is reduced under an applicable tax treaty.

Royalties are subject to a 10% withholding tax rate, unless the rate is reduced under an applicable tax treaty.

Other Albanian-source Income
A withholding tax of 10% is applicable to the gross amount of: a) technical service fees; b) management fees; c) payments for construction, installation, assembly or related supervisory work; d) rental payments; and e) payment for the performance of entertainment activities, which are made to nonresident taxpayers.

Filing Requirement
Withholding tax must be paid no later than the 20th day of the month following the month the remittance upon which the withholding tax is assessed. The payer of such amounts is responsible for retaining and paying the tax on the account of the tax authorities.

Branch remittance tax

Other taxes on corporations
Capital duty

Real property tax
Municipalities levy taxes based on the occupation of real property. A real estate tax on construction projects is levied on the value of a new investment at a rate of 2% to 4% in Tirana and 1% to 3% in other municipalities. Property tax is also applicable to agricultural land at rates varying from ALL 700 to ALL 5,600 per hectare, depending upon their use. A tax credit of 50% may be available for certain rural projects.

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Casino Games – An Overview Of Captain Cooks Casino

Do you want to experience the style of casinos in Las Vegas? Then check out this review on Captain Cooks online casino – a site that presents you with an online casino bonus of $500 free for all beginners. There are over 347 casino games accessible through this site. Captain Cooks casino basically provides you with an opportunity to experience the style and environment of casinos currently present in Las Vegas. This is their theme – and the games come with realistic graphics and other special effects in order to attract new casino players.There is an increasing trend of people playing online casino games, but they tend to hesitate about the safety of sites that offer casino games. Captain Cooks casino provides a safe and an entertaining platform which is actually very close to the feel of land based casino gaming. Apart from that, this casino also ensures that there is something for everyone through its extensive gambling opportunities. Yes, the site provides you with the casino games – but also with some helpful tips that will help you win the bets in roulette, blackjack and slots to name a few. Players can contact any of the members in the support staff through telephone and online chats. The staff is always ready to help and guide its clients in every aspect.Naturally, players are always looking for gambling venues that offer them the best payout bonuses. The average payout rate that Captain Cooks casino offers is over 97%, which exactly shows why a smarter player would be choosing this site. The site is also available in different languages to assist players throughout the world.Captain Cooks casino make sure that they are not lagging behind and are always up-to-date with the new technology related to their casino software. The services that they are providing are said to be trustful and reliable which increases the comfort level of the players. They are always giving out promotions and exciting offers to keep their clients content.Moreover, Captain Cooks casino is a member of the Interactive Gaming Council which means it guarantees just and honest gaming. Interactive Gaming Council is a non-profit organization that has the right to raise voice over the collective online gaming industry – and the council provide its services only to the reputable casino sites in the market. It addresses regulatory and legislative challenges as well as opportunities and makes sure that gaming is fair and honest.One major concern for all players regarding online casinos is indeed the safety issue. Captain Cooks casino shows its commitment to privacy of all personal details as well as online transactions. The staff claims that they are always checking their casino software in order to detect any problem or error – and they can be contacted 24/7 for the details and any kind of assistance.All in all, Captain Cooks casino is a solid and trusted online casino with high safety standards. Combined with intriguing gameplay and fancy graphics, even the most seasoned gambler will be pleased here.

Two Good Places To Play Bingo Games

Let’s take a moment to look at what I believe are the best two online bingo sites. Out there are lots of sites that have regulated bingo games on offer, it seems like everyone wants to get involved with this.Despite there being so many, some sites are much better than other ones, the following are the two which I like the best. The first is from the very well known gambling brand, Bet365.Their online bingo service is very good, anything a player wants they have. For starters they have a variety of bonuses for new and existing players such as a 500% welcome bonus. There are also buy one get one free offers on cards and a huge selection of games too.They offer the three different variants of bingo which are 90, 80 and 75 ball games. They also have deal or no deal bingo which is an exciting game as well as some of the best jackpot games.You only need to sign up the once as well in order to get access to all of the Bet365 franchise, so there will be no problem with you having a go at something like sports betting or poker for example. All in all, Bet365 is a good choice to play online bingo at.My second favourite site is the popular Cheeky Bingo who are fast becoming one of the most loved bingo sites. They offer free bingo which is a big reason as to why they are so popular.In fact, if you want to, you will be able to play free of charge all day every day and you can even win real money. Obviously the prizes aren’t that high in the free games but it’s better than nothing.Also, you will find the normal games that you have to pay for, where you will get very good prizes if you win. The overall look and navigation of the site is very good as well with bright colours and easy to use menus.I would highly recommend signing up to both sites really, you would enjoy them both just as much as each other. As soon as you have played at these two sites once, you will no doubt not want to play anywhere else again.

Learning How to Play The Game of Blackjack

Available in almost all the online casinos and in the land based casinos across the different countries, blackjack is perhaps one of the most played games amongst the different casino games. For those who are still not experts in playing the game and are in the process of learning, here is a quick guide on how to play blackjack.A game of blackjack involves several players; however, the players do not play against each other but against the dealer. The main aim of the players in blackjack is to make such a hand whose combined value will be as close to twenty one as possible and will also be more than that of the dealer’s hand. However, the player should be careful and make sure the hand value does not exceed twenty one because if it does, he will be out.The hand value in blackjack is determined by adding the individual values of the cards forming the blackjack hand. In blackjack, the face cards are worth ten points and the different numbered cards are worth the numbers. Ace is considered an important card in a game of blackjack; its value can be either one or eleven, depending on the kind of hand the player has. In blackjack, the two card hand consisting of an Ace and a ten point card is considered the best as it has a value of exactly twenty one.The game begins when the players have placed their bets; in blackjack before dealing the cards, the bets have to be placed. In blackjack each of the players are dealt two cards which are kept faced up. The dealer himself has two cards one of which is kept faced up while the other faced down. At this stage the players have to decide whether they will ‘stand’ or ‘hit’. To ‘hit’ means to be dealt another additional card; this is done when the player wants to increase his hand value. Generally if the hand value of a player is less than 16, the player opts for another additional card. However, the player has to be very careful as to not to go over twenty one when hitting. On the other hand ‘stand’ means to be satisfied with the dealt hand.After the players have made their decision, the dealer shows the faced down card. If the player’s hand value is more than that of the dealers without going over 21, then the player is paid 1:1; however, if the player gets a blackjack the payout is 3:2.